Annex 44 Complementary information to source category 5d Heavy Oil Fired Engines
Overview of recent revisions
The emission factor for heavy oil fired engines has been revised based on recent data. Cooper (2005) found an emission value of 0.5 µg TEQ/ t of fuel burned, based on measurements on three ships, using marine gas oil or residual oil. Based on an array of studies, the revised emission factor value for this class is of 2 µg TEQ/ t of fuel burned. Emission factors for other unintentional POPs (HCB and PCB) were also derived based on Cooper (2005) and are listed below.
Table III.44.1 PCB emission factors for source category 5d Heavy Oil Fired Engines
5d Heavy Oil Fired Engines Emission Factors (µg TEQ/t fuel burned) Classification Air Water Land Product Residue 1 All types 550 NA NA NA ND
Table III.44.2 HCB emission factors for source category 5d Heavy Oil Fired Engines
5d Heavy Oil Fired Engines Emission Factors (µg/t fuel burned) Classification Air Water Land Product Residue 1 All types 140 NA NA NA ND
Derivation of emission factors
Release to Air
Heavy oil fired engines cause PCDD/PCDF emissions to air. Unfortunately, limited data are available from isolated measurements in Europe and North America. Typically values between 3 and 6 μg TEQ per ton of fuel are reported from studies in Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the US.
Measured data from the burning of recycled waste oils are available from Austria, where emissions from a small incinerator gave a concentration of 0.02 ng TEQ/Nm³ (at 11% O2) equivalent to an emission factor of 0.37 μg TEQ/t of waste oil burned (LUA 1997). Dutch data from two small firing installations and a ferry determined a minimum of 0.1 ng TEQ/m³ and a maximum of 0.3 ng TEQ/m³ equivalent to emission factors of 2 μg TEQ/t and 6.5 μg TEQ/t, respectively. The mean of the measurements was 0.2 ng TEQ/m³ (= 4.25 μg TEQ/t) and the median was 0.17 ng TEQ/m³ (= 2.9 μg TEQ/t) (LUA 1997). Cooper (2005) has measured PCDD/PCDF emission from heavy oil and distillate maritime oil in diesel engines used on ships. The results showed emissions of 0.5 µg-TEQ/t (WHO-TEQ) for heavy oil burning. Based on these data, an emission factor of 2 μg TEQ/t of oil burned is determined.
Cooper (2005) has also measured emissions of HCB and PCBs from heavy oil and distillate maritime oil burning in diesel engines used on ships. Results were of 138,34 µg/t for HCB and 553,4 µg TEQ/t for total PCBs. Based on these data an HCB emission factor of 140 µg/t of heavy oil burned is proposed, and 550 µg TEQ/t of heavy oil burned for PCB.
Release in Residues
Heavy oil fired engines residues, especially emitted soot, are likely to have PCDD/PCDF in them. Unfortunately, amounts are unknown and further research is needed in order to determine exact concentrations.